Transcript: Underwater Highway | Apr 14, 2015

A ship sails at sea. Fishermen haul up a large fish on the deck.

ALEX says LARGE MARINE SPECIES
HAVE ALMOST BEEN
WIPED OUT FROM OVERFISHING.

A clip shows a sea snake on the seabed and sharks swimming underwater.

He continues THERE ARE ONLY A FEW MARINE
PROTECTED AREAS ON EARTH
WHERE THEY HAVE A CHANCE TO
THRIVE.
BUT MANY OF THESE ANIMALS ARE
MIGRATORY AND THESE SAFE
HAVENS ARE MERELY PIT STOPS ON
THEIR LONG JOURNEYS.

A turtle snaps at a jellyfish and a hammer fish swims next to it.

TYLER says EXPERTS AGREE THAT
THESE VITAL SPECIES WILL ONLY
SURVIVE IF WE ALSO DEFEND
THEIR UNDERWATER HIGHWAYS.

A deep sea diver swims between large rocks underwater. The title of the show is overwritten on the image. It reads "Underwater Highways."

TYLER is in his late thirties, he has short dark hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a checkered shirt.

He says HEY EVERYONE! I'M
TYLER.

His image turns black and white like a photograph and a caption next to him reads his name.
Several pictures show him surfing, taking pictures and sitting at the beach.

He turns to his brother and says AND THIS IS MY YOUNGER
BROTHER ALEX.

ALEX has short blond hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a striped t shirt and hoodie.

A caption next to him reads his name as clips show him holding a large fish in his arms; deep sea diving, sliding down a zip line.
A photograph shows them hugging as small children; later as teenagers and as grown men holding cameras in front of a glaciar.

Alex says AND TOGETHER WE'RE THE
WATER BROTHERS!
WE'RE GOING TO TAKE YOU ON
AN ADVENTURE AROUND THE
WORLD TO EXPLORE THE STATE
OF OUR BLUE PLANET.

Fast clips show them rowing a wooden sailboat down a river; a white yacht on the ocean and deep sea diving, sailing on a brown river in a rubber boat, shooting for documentaries, etcetera.

He continues A PLANET DEFINED BY WATER AND
ITS ABILITY TO SUSTAIN LIFE.
TYLER says SO JOIN US ON OUR
JOURNEY AS WE EXPLORE THE WORLD,
LOOKING AT THE MOST IMPORTANT
WATER STORIES OF OUR TIME.

A clip shows a young girl
ALEX says AND TOGETHER WE WILL LEARN
HOW TO BETTER PROTECT OUR MOST
PRECIOUS RESOURCE.

A slate with bubbling water appears and a caption on it reads "The water Brothers."

A clip shows a school of fish swimming under blue water.

TYLER says COSTA RICA'S COCOS
ISLAND IS HOME TO ONE OF THE
MOST EXTRAORDINARY SPECTACLES
OF NATURE.
FISH AND SHARKS ALL GATHER
HERE IN INCREDIBLE NUMBERS.

Fast clips show the animals he names swimming around them.

ALEX says BUT THESE ANIMALS DO
NOT STAY IN THESE PROTECTED
WATERS FOR LONG.

A lot of hammer fish swim around them in the water. A clip shows three men harpooning and hauling sharks and tuna up on their boat.

He continues THEY MIGRATE BETWEEN OTHER
OCEANIC ISLANDS AND THE
MAINLAND, AND THEY'RE BEING
FISHED IN HUGE NUMBERS WHEN
THEY LEAVE TO SATISFY HUMAN
DEMANDS FOR TUNA, AND SHARKS
FOR SHARK FIN SOUP.
MARINE PARKS TO FISH ILLEGALLY.

TYLER says GLOBAL POPULATIONS
OF SHARKS AND SEA TURTLES
THAT PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN
MAINTAINING
HEALTHY MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
ARE AT ALL TIME LOWS.

A clip shows a large shark swimming below a deep sea diver.

ALEX says IN AN EFFORT TO
IMPROVE PROTECTION OF THESE
MAGNIFICENT CREATURES WE JOINED
A GROUP OF DEDICATED SCIENTISTS
AND VOLUNTEERS, LED BY COSTA
RICAN SCIENTIST RANDALL ARAUZ,
AS THEY LEAVE THE PROTECTED
AREA.

A clip shows the brothers in a boat. Some men stand around them as they carry a covered sea turtle. Randall is in his fifties; he has short dark hair, wears a stubble beard and glasses.

A caption next to Randall reads "Randall Arauz, Biologist, Founder Pretoma."
He wears a dark green shirt with a logo that reads "Tropics."

RANDALL ARAUZ says NOW THERE IS A
BIG PUSH IN
THE WORLD TO INCREASE MARINE
PROTECTED AREAS.
SOME PEOPLE ARE CALLING FOR
FULLY PROTECTED MARINE PROTECTED
AREAS, "NO TAKE."
OTHERS CAN BE CLOSED SEASONS, OR
BAN CERTAIN SPECIES OR CERTAIN
FISHING ARTS, BUT THERE IS A LOT
OF TALK OF INCREASING THE MARINE
PROTECTED AREAS.
THE PLAN IS BY 2020 TO HAVE
AT LEAST 15 OR 20 PERCENT OF
THE GLOBAL OCEANS PROTECTED,
AS OPPOSED TO NOWADAYS, IT'S
ONLY 2 OR 3 PERCENT.
THE THING IS, IT'S A BIG OCEAN
OUT THERE.
WE DON'T HAVE A LOT OF
RESOURCES, SO WHERE
DO WE PUT THIS?

A deep sea diver swims at a distance from a shark.

Alex says THE EXPEDITION’S GOAL WAS TO ATTACH TRACKING DEVICES
TO AS MANY SHARKS AND SEA
TURTLES AS POSSIBLE TO
IDENTIFY THEIR MIGRATORY
ROUTES, SO THAT FISHING
PRESSURE IN THOSE AREAS CAN
BE MONITORED AND REGULATED.
A map of an island appears on screen. It reads "Cocos Island, 5.5189 North, 87.0717 West. Pacific Ocean."
Tha caption changes to "Cocos Marine Reserve" and the Island is suddenly surrounded bye a red circle that reads "12 miles."

ALEX HEARN says THE COCOS MARINE
RESERVE IS AN AREA OF WATER THAT
GOES ABOUT TWELVE MILES AWAY
FROM THE COAST.
AND IT'S PART OF A NETWORK OF
MARINE RESERVES IN THE REGION.

The map zooms out to show the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Several other marine reserves are highlighted on the map. They’re labelled "Galapagos islands, Cocos Island, Coiba National Park, Malpelo Island."

He continues SO YOU HAVE THE GALAPAGOS MARINE
RESERVE, COCOS, MALPELO, COIBA,

Alex Hearn sits on a black box on the deck of a boat. He’s in his thirties; has short brown hair and a trimmed beard. He wears khaki shorts and a blue t shirt.
A caption below him reads "Doctor Alex Hearn, Director of Conservation Science Turtle island Restoration Network."

He continues AND REALLY THEY ARE DESIGNED
VERY MUCH TO PROTECT THE COASTAL
WATERS AROUND THOSE ISLANDS,
BUT A LOT OF THE KEY, ICONIC
SPECIES THAT ARE IN THESE
WATERS ARE MIGRATORY.

ALEX says THERE ARE MANY
REASONS WHY THESE MARINE
SPECIES MIGRATE, FROM FEEDING,
TO MATING OR GIVING BIRTH.
VARIETY OF TRACKING DEVICES TO
ROUTES.

The devices used for tracking are set on the deck of the boat. They include several bullet shaped objects with cables attached to them and square receptors.

ALEX HEARN says SOME OF THEM JUST
DETERMINE WHEN THEY ARE PRESENT
AT THE ISLAND, WHICH IS VERY
USEFUL, AND OTHERS WILL
ACTUALLY GIVE US TRACKS IN
THE OCEAN AS THEY MOVE OFFSHORE.
SO IT'S THE COMBINATION OF THE
TWO THAT ALLOWS US TO BUILD UP A
PICTURE OF THEIR SPATIAL
ECOLOGY, AND THEN FIGURE OUT
WHETHER THESE MARINE RESERVES
ARE ACTUALLY GOING TO BE USEFUL
OR NOT.

A diver drops back into the ocean carrying a long pole and wearing a wetsuit and an oxygen tank.

TYLER says AS THE TEAM PREPARED
FOR THE FIRST TAGGING DIVE,
STAYING FOCUSED WAS CRITICAL,
KNOWING THE CHALLENGE THAT LAY
AHEAD.
THE ONLY WAY TO ATTACH A
UNDERWATER IS TO SWIM CLOSE
ENOUGH TO REACH IT WITH A POLE
SPEAR.

The diver waits for a shark to approach holding the spear pole.

BORIS WORM sits on the deck of the boat and speaks to Alex. He’s blond; has short hair is clean-shaven and wears khaki short and t shirt.
A caption below him reads "Doctor Boris Worm, Marine Conservation Biologist Dalhouse University."

He leans on his knee and says TAGGING HAMMERHEAD
SHARKS IS VERY TRICKY BECAUSE
THEY ARE EXTREMELY SHY, AND VERY
WEARY OF DIVERS, PARTICULARLY
THE BUBBLES YOU MAKE.
SO ESSENTIALLY YOU HAVE TO HOLD
YOUR BREATH.
AND THEN YOU HAVE TO SIT
VERY STILL IN A PLACE AND BLEND
WITH THE ROCK, AND LET THE
HAMMERHEAD COME TO YOU.
AND THEN BASICALLY YOU
HAVE TO COME FROM ABOVE
WHERE IT CAN'T REALLY SEE
YOU, AND STICK THE TAG CLOSE
TO ITS DORSAL FIN, WHERE IT
DOESN'T INJURE THE SHARK,
AND WHERE IT ALSO HOLDS IN
PLACE REALLY WELL.

A clip shows the divers wait in position as the shark approaches them. They stay really still and hold on to their poles behind the rock.

ALEX says SWIMMING WITH SHARKS
IS A THRILLING EXPERIENCE,
ESPECIALLY WHEN YOU HAVE TO
STALK THEM IN ORDER TO BETTER
UNDERSTAND HOW TO PROTECT THESE
GIANT PREDATORS.
TYLER says AFTER SEVERAL
DIVES, THE TEAM APPROACHED
ITS FIRST SHARK FROM BEHIND,
AT THE PERFECT ANGLE.

A clip shows a hammerhead shark swim a distance away from the diver and being hit by the spear pole. It jerks and swims away.

ALEX says THE SCIENTISTS HAD
TAGGED THE FIRST HAMMERHEAD
WITH AN ACOUSTIC TAG.

The diver looks at the camera and cheers underwater.
A computerized image of the hammerhead shows it swimming in the ocean surrounded concentrically by sonar lines.

He continues THESE TAGS WORK BY SENDING DATA
FROM THEIR HOST USING SOUND
WAVES TO RECEIVERS PLACED
STRATEGICALLY AROUND COCOS,
GALAPAGOS AND ALONG THE COAST
OF THE MAINLAND.

The sonar waves hit a red receptor and it beeps as it receives the data.
A label on the image reads "Tag number 65853, November 17, 2014, 14.23."

TYLER says WHENEVER TAGGED
ANIMALS PASS WITHIN 200 METRES
OF A RECEIVER, THE
IDENTIFICATION OF THE TAGGED
ANIMAL AND THE TIME IT PASSES
BY ARE RECORDED.
WE ALSO PICKED UP DATA RECEIVERS AND DOWNLOADED THEIR STORED
INFORMATION BACK ON THE
BOAT.

ALEX sits across from Alex Hearn in the cabin of the boat and says SO WE'VE BEEN ABLE TO TAG
A FEW SHARKS ON OUR TRIP SO FAR,
BUT WE WON'T BE ABLE TO LOOK
AT ANY OF THAT DATA DURING
THIS TRIP, WE MIGHT NOT GET
IT UNTIL A FEW MONTHS AFTER
PERHAPS THIS TRIP IS DONE,

Alex Hearn nods.

He continues BUT
TO GET A SENSE OF WHAT THE DATA
IS TELLING US SO FAR, YOU'VE
BEEN DOING THESE TRIPS FOR A
FEW YEARS NOW, WHAT HAVE YOU
BEEN SEEING WITH THE DATA
THAT'S BEEN COMING IN?

ALEX HEARN points to a map of the different Islands on his laptop screen and says WELL ACTUALLY SOME
OF THE MOST AMAZING RESULTS WE
GOT FROM THE FIRST EVER TRIP IN
GALAPAGOS AT LEAST, BUT IT
RELATES TO COCOS.
IN 2006, WE TAGGED 18
HAMMERHEADS AT
THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, AND
THEN IN MARCH 2007, SO ABOUT
NINE MONTHS LATER, TWO OF THOSE
HAMMERHEADS ENDED UP
HERE IN COCOS.
WHAT'S AMAZING IS THAT THEY ONLY
TOOK ABOUT 15 DAYS TO GET HERE.

Alex says WOW.

ALEX HEARN continues IF YOU THINK
THAT THAT'S ALMOST 700
KILOMETRES, THAT PRETTY MUCH
SUGGESTS THAT THEY SWAM IN A
STRAIGHT LINE NON-STOP.
AND THEN ONE OF THEM TURNED
AROUND AND MADE THE RETURN TRIP
BACK AGAIN, WHICH IS KIND OF
COOL.
ANOTHER VERY INTERESTING
SHARK WAS A
HAMMERHEAD TAGGED IN
MALPELO, WHICH IS ABOUT 600
KILOMETRES TOWARDS COLUMBIA
FROM HERE, AND THAT SHARK
TOOK JUST UNDER TWO MONTHS
TO GET HERE, TO COCOS, HUNG
AROUND COCOS FOR A COUPLE OF
WEEKS AND THEN HEADED OVER
TO GALAPAGOS AND JUST TOOK
UP RESIDENCE THERE.
IT WAS THERE FOR SEVERAL MONTHS,
SO IT KIND OF VISITED THE THREE
JEWELS OF THE EASTERN
TROPICAL PACIFIC.

A clip shows a diver waiting with his spear pole under water.

ALEX says AFTER YEARS OF
TAGGING AND TRACKING THE
BEGINNING TO REVEAL A CLEAR
MIGRATORY PATTERN BETWEEN
OCEANIC ISLANDS AND THE
MAINLAND.
BUT SHARKS WEREN'T THE ONLY WE WERE HOPING TO TRACK.

A clip shows a sea turtle feeding from the rocks under the water.

TYLER says SEA TURTLES PLAY A
THEY HAVE A DIVERSE DIET AND
HEALTH OF SEA GRASS AND
JELLYFISH POPULATIONS.

The clip shows the turtle snapping at a light pink large jellyfish.

ALEX says RESEARCHERS USUALLY
ATTACH TRANSMITTERS ON TURTLES
WHEN THEY COME ON SHORE TO LAY
TURTLES DO NOT GO ON LAND, SO
THE ONLY WAY TO TAG
THEM IS TO CATCH ONE WITH
YOUR BARE HANDS.

A clip shows a diver swim over a turtle and hold it from its shell as it makes an effort to escape.

TYLER says THE TOP PRIORITY
FOR ANY SEA
TURTLE CAPTURE IS TO HAVE AS
MINIMAL IMPACT ON THE TURTLE
AS POSSIBLE AND KEEP IT SAFE
AT ALL TIMES.
A SUPPORT DIVER IS ALWAYS ON
TOO QUICKLY AND RISK THE DANGER
OF DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS.

One of the divers holds the turtle as a second diver holds the oxygen tank and steadies his colleague.

The support team on the boat lifts the turtle and puts it on the deck as they stroke its shell.

ALEX sits next to the large turtle and points to the rear end of its shell as he says ON OUR LAST DIVE, WE
CAUGHT THIS
MASSIVE PACIFIC GREEN
TURTLE, AND WHAT WE ARE
GOING TO DO NOW IS DRILL A
HOLE INTO ITS CARAPACE AND
LOOP A TAG THROUGH THERE.
IT'S A SATELLITE TAG, IT'S GOING
TO SEND BACK ALL SORTS OF
INFORMATION EVERY TIME THIS
TURTLE SURFACES.
IT'S GOING TO TELL US
TEMPERATURE, DEPTH AND ALSO ITS
LOCATION.

ALEX says AND THAT'S
REALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE IF
WE CAN FIGURE OUT WHERE
THESE TURTLES GO TO AND FROM
COCOS, BACK TO THE MAINLAND
TO NEST, WE CAN FIGURE OUT
THE BEST CORRIDORS TO PROTECT,
BECAUSE THESE
TURTLES, LIKE ALL THE DIFFERENT
SPECIES OF TURTLES
AROUND COCOS ARE VERY
VULNERABLE TO BYCATCH.
THERE'S ALL SORTS OF LONG
LINE FISHERIES SURROUNDING
THE ISLAND, TARGETING ALL SORTS
OF SHARKS AND OTHER LARGE FISH.

A clip shows some scars and pink scratches on the turtle’s dark green skin.

ALEX continues BUT THE TURTLES ARE
ACCIDENTLY CAUGHT, AND IF WE CAN
FIGURE OUT WHERE TO PROTECT
THOSE CORRIDORS WE CAN
KEEP THE TURTLES SAFE.
ALEX runs his hand along some long scratches on the turtle’s shell and says BUT TURTLES HERE
AREN'T EXACTLY SAFE ON THEIR
OWN, YOU CAN SEE ALL SORTS OF
SCRATCHES ALONG ITS CARAPACE,
ALONG ITS SHELL, MAYBE FROM A
TIGER SHARK, OR ANOTHER LARGE
SHARK, THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN
TRYING TO GET A BITE OUT OF IT.
SO COCOS IS A VERY DANGEROUS
PLACE, WHETHER IT'S FROM
HUMANS, OR FROM TIGER
SHARKS.
THIS GUY'S ESCAPED QUITE A FEW
ORDEALS IN ITS LIFE.

A clip shows Randall soaking some cotton wool in alcohol and cleaning the turtle’s fin with it.

TYLER says WITH THE TURTLE CALM
AND SAFELY SECURED, WE WERE
READY TO BEGIN THE TAGGING
PROCESS.
RANDALL HAS PERSONALLY TAGGED
HUNDREDS OF TURTLES
IN COSTA RICA, AND NO ONE IS
MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE ABOUT TURTLE
BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR IN THE
REGION.
RANDALL ARAUZ says WHAT WE ARE
GOING TO DO IS TAG HER WITH
ONE OF THESE METAL TAGS.
WE USE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TAGS,
THIS IS A METAL TAG, AND THE
GOOD THING ABOUT THESE IS THEY
ARE CHEAP, AND ANYONE CAN REPORT
THEM IF THEY SEE THEM.

RANDALL ARAUZ presses the tagger around the fin and releases it as he says GOOD TURTLE.

ALEX says METAL IDENTIFICATION
TAGS ARE A LOW-TECH METHOD OF
KEEPING TRACK OF SEA TURTLES.

He secures the small rectangular tag on the fin and makes sure it’s properly held.

He continues THESE TAGS CAN STAY ON
TURTLES FOR YEARS AT A
TIME AND ARE IMPRINTED WITH
A SERIAL NUMBER AND RETURN
ADDRESS SO ANYONE CAN NOTIFY
RANDALL'S MARINE
CONSERVATION ORGANIZATION
PRETOMA IF THEY SPOT THE
TURTLE IN THE FUTURE.

RANDALL ARAUZ puts on surgical gloves as he says SO NOW WE ARE
GOING TO TAKE THE TISSUE SAMPLE
FOR GENETIC STUDIES AND FOR
ISOTOPES STUDIES.
THE GENETIC STUDIES WILL TELL US
THE GENETIC ORIGIN OF THIS
TURTLE,
IF IT WAS BORN IN MEXICO,
COSTA RICA, OR GALAPAGOS.

RANDALL ARAUZ cuts off a small portion of skin from the turtle as he says AND THEN
WITH THE ISOTOPES WE WILL BE
ABLE TO TELL HOW LONG THIS
ANIMAL HAS BEEN HERE, HOW LONG
HE'S BEEN FEEDING ON FOOD RIGHT
AROUND HERE, SO IT CAN ALSO TELL
US, SINCE WE'VE NEVER TAGGED
THIS TURTLE BEFORE, IF IT'S
A NEWCOMER, COMING FROM
SOMEWHERE ELSE, AND WE'LL BE
ABLE TO KNOW THAT TOO.

Randall puts the skin in a small test tube.

ALEX says SO, YOU CAN TELL EXACTLY
WHAT IT'S BEEN EATING JUST FROM
THIS SAMPLE?

RANDALL says YES.

ALEX says WOW.

A clip shows a turtle feeding from the seabed.

TYLER says TOGETHER WITH THE
TRACKING DEVICE, THIS GENETIC
INFORMATION CAN HELP PAINT A
PICTURE OF A TURTLE'S ENTIRE
LIFE JOURNEY, WHICH CAN LAST AS
LONG AS 100 YEARS.

A clip shows Randall drilling a very small hole in the turtle’s shell.

ALEX says THE NEXT STEP WAS TO
ATTACH THE SATELLITE
TRANSMITTER.
RANDALL CAREFULLY DRILLED A
SMALL HOLE AT THE VERY END OF
ITS SHELL WHERE THERE ARE FEW
THE LEAST DISCOMFORT.

The clip shows a white device with a bulb shaped end and Randall attaching a white cord through the drilled hole.

He continues USING A GPS LINK, THE
TRANSMITTER IS
ABLE TO SHARE WITH
SCIENTISTS, IN REAL TIME,
TO BREATHE.

A computerized animation shows a turtle swimming in the ocean and the data receiver sending information. A label reads "P.S.A.T tag; coordinates are overwritten on the image as well as the date; November 20, 2014, 21 hours 40 minutes, 14.6 meters, 24 degrees."

ALEX says IT IS ALSO
CAPABLE OF RECORDING HOW DEEP
THE TURTLE DIVES, HOW LONG
IT STAYS UNDER AND THE
TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER
CRITICAL DATA FOR UNLOCKING
THE MANY SECRETS OF SEA
TURTLE BEHAVIOUR AND BIOLOGY.

A clip shows the team hanging the turtle in a net and weighing it. Then they lower it and between two men release it back into the ocean.

TYLER says WITH THE TRANSMITTER
BE MEASURED, WEIGHED AND
RELEASED BACK TO THE OCEAN.
The team CHEERS AND CLAPS as the turtle swims away with the white transmitter attached to its rear end.

ALEX says SO IN ABOUT SIX MONTHS
TO A YEAR FROM NOW, HOPEFULLY
THEY'LL HAVE THE DATA BACK FOR
THAT, WE'LL FIND OUT EVERYWHERE
IT WENT, HOW LONG IT'S STAYING
AROUND COCOS, WHERE IT COULD BE
GOING TO BREED, WHICH BEACH.
AND WE'LL KNOW ALL THESE
CONNECTIONS SO WE CAN BETTER
PROTECT THEM.
RIGHT NOW I'M OUT OF BREATH,
THAT THING IS LIKE 65 KILOS,
I NEED A BREAK.

A clip shows the team leaning over a sea turtle on its back in a green tub.

TYLER says THE DATA WE GATHER
HIS COLLEAGUES CAN PETITION
GOVERNMENTS TO CREATE EFFECTIVE
MARINE CORRIDORS.

A clip shows the sea turtle swimming through the rocks with the transmitter floating behind it.

ALEX says THE TRANSMITTER
AUTOMATICALLY DETACHES IN A
FEW MONTHS OR IF IT EVER
GETS STUCK.
BUT FOR SEA TURTLES, A MARINE
PARK AND PROTECTED UNDERWATER
HIGHWAY ARE NOT ENOUGH.
THEIR NESTING GROUNDS ARE ON THE MAINLAND, AND WHEN THEY
ARRIVE ON THESE BEACHES THEY'RE
AT THEIR MOST VULNERABLE.

A clip shows a small boat floating next to a larger one on the coast.

TYLER says TO FULLY UNDERSTAND
WHAT CAN BE DONE
TO PROTECT SEA TURTLES, OUR
JOURNEY WOULD ALSO HAVE TO
CONTINUE TO THE MAINLAND.
IT WAS TIME TO SAY GOODBYE TO
COCOS ISLAND, BUT NOT BEFORE
TAKING ONE LAST JUMP IN THE
OPEN OCEAN.

Both the brothers jump in the ocean and swim around in their bathing suits.

They climb on top again and dive in playing around.

ALEX stands next to Randall and says SO RANDALL, SUCCESSFUL
TRIP. WE'RE ALL DONE!

RANDALL ARAUZ says YEAH, THIS
IS REALLY, REALLY GOOD.
AT THE END WE ENDED UP
DOING SIX SHARKS, FOUR
HAMMERHEADS AND TWO GALAPAGOS
SHARKS.
TWO OF THE HAMMERHEADS HAD
SATELLITE TAGS, AND THEN WE ALSO
DID SIX SEA TURTLES, TWO OF
WHICH WERE HAWKSBILLS, AND
BOTH OF THE HAWKSBILLS HAVE
BEEN CAUGHT PREVIOUSLY ON
OTHER TRIPS SO, REALLY GOOD
TRIP, AND LOTS OF GOOD DATA.

A clip shows a sea turtle from below.
TYLER says MULTIPLE TAGGING
EXPEDITIONS
CONTINUE TO TAKE PLACE EVERY
YEAR AND THE TRACKING
EFFORTS ARE BEGINNING TO
SHOW CLEAR RESULTS.

An animation shows a large sea turtle swimming from the coast of Cocos Island to Galapagos below it, in a straight line.

He continues NICKNAMED SANJAY COMPLETED
THE 700-KILOMETRE TRIP FROM
COCOS TO GALAPAGOS IN UNDER
14 DAYS, REINFORCING THE
THEORY OF A MIGRATORY
'SUPERHIGHWAY' BETWEEN THE TWO
PROTECTED AREAS FOR MULTIPLE
SPECIES.

Back on the boat, ALEX looks at Randall and says AND THIS IDEA OF
PROTECTING MARINE CORRIDORS,
MIGRATION ROUTES, IS THAT SORT
OF NEW TO MARINE CONSERVATION?

RANDALL ARAUZ nods and says IT'S RELATIVELY
NEW, BECAUSE YOU KNOW AT FIRST
IT'S CREATING THESE NO TAKE
FISHERY AREAS, WHICH ARE
DEFINITELY GOOD, AND WE NEED
MORE OF THESE, BUT RIGHT, IF WE
ARE PUTTING TAGS ON THESE
ANIMALS AND THEY ARE MOVING AND
THEY ARE GOING TO OTHER PLACES,
WE NEED TO KNOW THIS.

RANDALL says AND IT'S
VERY IMPORTANT, BECAUSE FOR
INSTANCE, AS IN THE CASE OF
TURTLES OR SHARKS, IF THEY
ARE RESIDENT IN COCOS
ISLAND, THEN THAT MEANS
COSTA RICA HAS TO PUT UP ALL
ITS EFFORTS INTO PROTECTING
THOSE ANIMALS BECAUSE IT'S
COSTA RICA'S RESPONSIBILITY,
BUT IF THE ANIMALS ARE GOING
TO ECUADOR OR GOING TO
COLUMBIA, THEN WE HAVE TO
TALK TO THESE OTHER
COUNTRIES, BECAUSE OUR
CONSERVATION EFFORTS WILL
NOT BE THAT EFFICIENT, IF THEY
MOVE OUT AND GET KILLED.
AND NOW
THAT WE ARE DOING THESE
MIGRATORY STUDIES, IF WE KNOW
THAT THERE ARE MIGRATORY ROUTES
THAT THEY ARE FOLLOWING, THEN
THAT WILL HELP FOCUS OUR
EFFORTS, IN TALKING TO THESE
OTHER NATIONS, SO THAT WE CAN
CREATE THESE PROTECTED SWIM
WAYS, WHICH IS THE PROCESS
WE ARE IN RIGHT NOW.

An animated map shows the route between Cocos Island and the coast of Costa Rica. A label reads "Playa San Miguel."


ALEX stands on the seashore at night and says WE'VE ARRIVED IN PLAYA SAN
MIGUEL ON THE PACIFIC COAST, TO
WATCH SEA TURTLE NESTING AND
HATCHING, AND LEARN ABOUT
ALL THE THREATS THESE
TURTLES FACE WHEN THEY COME
ON SHORE TO LAY THEIR EGGS,
AND WHAT LOCAL GROUPS LIKE
PRETOMA, ARE DOING TO SAVE
SEA TURTLES IN COSTA RICA.
TO LAY
THEIR EGGS IN THE MIDDLE OF
THE NIGHT TO AVOID
PREDATORS, SO WE JOINED A
NIGHT PATROL GROUP OF
SCIENTISTS AND VOLUNTEERS WHO’D JUST FOUND A NESTING TURTLE.

A clip shows a turtle crawling on the sand and laying its eggs in a hole in the sand.

ALEX says SO RANDALL, WE'VE FOUND AN
OLIVE RIDLEY, JUST LAYING EGGS,
IT'S A BEAUTIFUL SIGHT, HOW MANY
IS SHE GOING TO LAY RIGHT NOW?

Randall and Alex kneel next to the hole and watch the turtle lay her eggs. The light of the camera makes it bright enough to see.

RANDALL ARAUZ says WELL ON
AVERAGE, THESE TURTLES LAY
ABOUT A HUNDRED EGGS PER
CLUTCH, BUT THEN
YOU ALSO HAVE TO CONSIDER,
SHE'S GOING TO LAY TWO OR
THREE CLUTCHES IN A SEASON,
AT ABOUT TWO OR THREE WEEK
INTERVALS, AND THEN SHE IS
GOING TO NEST ON A FREQUENCY
OF EVERY TWO OR THREE YEARS.

ALEX says AND HOW DO THEY KNOW TO
COME TO THESE BEACHES TO LAY
EGGS?

RANDALL ARAUZ says WELL, THAT'S ONE
OF THE MYSTERIES OF THE TURTLES.
WE KNOW FOR INSTANCE THAT THE
FEMALES ALWAYS COME BACK TO
THEIR NATAL BEACH.
AND NOWADAYS WITH MODERN DAY
GENETICS, WE ALSO KNOW THAT
THEY COME BACK TO THE BEACH
THEY WERE BORN AT.
SO THAT'S CALLED NATAL HOMING,
WHAT WE DON'T KNOW IS HOW THEY
DO IT, WHAT ARE THE CUES?
SOME PEOPLE
THINK IT MAY BE MAGNETITE IN
THE BRAIN, THAT'S MAGNETISM,
SO WHEN THEY ARE INCUBATING,
THEY KNOW WHERE THEY ARE FROM
THE MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE
EARTH.
OTHER HYPOTHESIS ARE THAT THEY
SMELL THERE WAY BACK,
EACH PARTICULAR NEST BEACH
HAS ITS OWN SMELL,
SO THAT'S HOW THEY FIND THEIR
WAY BACK.
NOBODY REALLY KNOWS, BUT THE
AMAZING THING IS, THAT THEY
DO COME BACK TO THEIR NATAL
BEACH.

ALEX points to the turtle and says WELL IT'S AMAZING,
HOPEFULLY SOMEBODY CAN FIND OUT
THE MYSTERY ONE DAY.
IT LOOKS LIKE SHE IS JUST
COVERING UP THE NEST NOW.

RANDALL ARAUZ says RIGHT, WELL AFTER
SHE LAYS THE EGGS, SHE CAREFULLY
USES HER FINS, THEY KIND OF LOOK
LIKE HANDS, AND THEN SHE USES
HER WHOLE BODY TO PACK DOWN
THE SAND, AND THIS IS THE ONLY
SPECIES THAT DOES THAT.
THAT'S ALSO CALLED THE TURTLE
DANCE.

They look at the turtle as it flattens the sand over her eggs and rests on it.

ALEX says AND WHAT ARE THE THREATS
FROM POACHING LIKE IN COSTA
RICA?
IS IT VERY WIDE SPREAD?

RANDALL ARAUZ says WELL POACHING IS
VERY WIDE SPREAD.
COSTA RICANS LIKE TO EAT THE
TURTLE EGGS, ESPECIALLY IN RURAL
COMMUNITIES LIKE THIS.
THE THING IS THAT IN COSTA
RICA EATING THE TURTLE EGGS
IS ALWAYS ATTACHED TO
DRINKING.
IT'S NOT THAT PEOPLE NEED THE
PROTEIN, OR THEY NEED THE FOOD,
IT'S BASICALLY SOMETHING THEY
DO FOR FUN.
THEY GO TO BARS, CANTINAS, AND
SHOOT DOWN TURTLE EGGS, AND PART
OF OUR WORK IS TRYING TO
ERADICATE THAT PRACTICE.

ALEX says DESPITE LAWS
PROTECTING SEA TURTLES IN
COSTA RICA, EGGS ARE SOLD AT
BARS UNDER THE BELIEF THEY
WILL ACT AS AN APHRODISIAC.
ALTHOUGH THERE HAS NEVER BEEN
ANY EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THIS
CONTENTION, POACHING RATES FOR
SEA TURTLE EGGS ARE ALMOST ONE
HUNDRED PERCENT ON BEACHES THAT
ARE NOT PROTECTED.

A clip shows volunteers on the beach. They count the eggs and jot down data.

TYLER says IN RESPONSE,
RANDALL HAS HELPED ORGANIZED
TEAMS OF VOLUNTEERS TO
PATROL LOCAL BEACHES,
RELOCATE EGGS AND MONITOR
HATCHERY SUCCESS RATES.

They dig up the nests and place the eggs delicately in a sand filled tub to transport them.

He continues THE WORLD DEDICATED TO KEEPING
TURTLE EGGS SAFE UNTIL THEY
HATCH.

ALEX says IT'S SORT OF A ONCE IN A
LIFETIME OPPORTUNITY FOR US.

RANDALL ARAUZ says I'M GLAD WE GOT
IT, AND IT'S DEFINITELY AN
INSPIRATION, ONCE YOU SEE ONE OF
THESE TURTLES IT CAN ACTUALLY
CHANGE YOU.

A clip shows the female crawl back into the sea and swim away.

ALEX says AS WE WATCHED THE
FEMALE RETURN TO THE OCEAN, IT
FAR SHE HAD TRAVELLED TO GET
BACK TO THE EXACT SAME BEACH
WHERE SHE WAS BORN, AND TO SEE
UP CLOSE, THIS UNIQUE ASPECT OF
THEIR AMAZING LIFECYCLE.

TYLER says BUT OUR EXCITEMENT
DIDN'T LAST LONG.
JUST DOWN THE SHORE, WE CAME
ACROSS A VERY DISTURBING SIGHT.
A DEAD SEA TURTLE THAT HAD
WASHED UP ON THE BEACH.

A clip shows Randall and Alex lean over a medium size dead sea turtle belly up on the beach tangled in seaweed.

RANDALL ARAUZ says WELL THIS IS A
VERY MOST UNFORTUNATE SITUATION.
THIS IS AN ENDANGERED HAWKSBILL.
IT'S CRITICALLY ENDANGERED ONE
OF THE MOST ENDANGERED SEA
TURTLE SPECIES.
AND WITH OUR RESEARCH, WE'VE
FOUND OUT THAT THESE TURTLES,
THESE JUVENILES, HAWKSBILL
TURTLES, LIKE TO LIVE ON
THE ROCKY POINTS OF THE AREA,
AND UNFORTUNATELY THEY GET
KILLED BY SHRIMP TRAWLS.
THERE IS A SHRIMP TRAWL
OPERATION OUT HERE WITH TRAWL
NETS, THEY DRAG THEM ON THE
BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN, AND
UNFORTUNATELY THEY CATCH THESE
YOUNG ONES, AND THEY DROWN THEM.

ALEX says SO THIS ONE WAS PROBABLY
DROWNED BY A SHRIMP TRAWLER
THEN?

RANDALL ARAUZ says I WOULD SAY
PRETTY DEFINITELY, BECAUSE YOU
LOOK AT IT AND SEE IT HAS NO
MAJOR PHYSICAL DAMAGES, NO
STRIKES BY BOATS, IT'S OBVIOUSLY
A HEALTHY TURTLE, IT'S NICE AND
FAT, AND NO HOOKS, NO SIGNS
OF EVIDENCE OF FISHERIES
INTERACTION.
SO, I'M PRETTY MUCH SURE IT WAS
A SHRIMP TRAWL.

A clip shows a fishing boat sailing in the ocean.

Alex says SHRIMP TRAULLING IS ONE OF THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE METHODS
OF FISHING IN USE TODAY.
TO CATCH SHRIMP, BOATS DRAG
THE OCEAN PICKING UP EVERYTHING
IN THEIR PATH.

A computerized animation shows the boat drag large nets and pick up everything on the seabed.

He explains IT IS AN EXTREMELY INEFFICIENT,
AND WASTEFUL METHOD OF FEEDING
PEOPLE THAT KILLS AN AVERAGE OF TEN KILOGRAMS OF MARINE LIFE FOR EVERY KILOGRAM OF SHRIMP CAUGHT.

A clip shows a large brown pile of undefined small fish and animals moving slowly on the deck of the fishing boat.

TYLER says MUCH OF THIS BYCATCH
IS THEN DUMPED OVERBOARD,
DEAD OR DYING, AND IT IS
ESTIMATED THAT OVER 150 thousand SEA
TURTLES ARE KILLED BY SHRIMP
TRAWLERS EVERY YEAR.

A clip shows the animals being dumped back in the ocean. They roll out of small rectangular openings at the bottom of the boat.

RANDALL ARAUZ says FORTUNATELY,
THERE IS TECHNOLOGY THAT CAN
SOLVE THIS PROBLEM.
IT WAS DEVELOPED IN THE MID 80'S
IN THE STATES.
THE TECHNOLOGY IS CALLED A
TURTLE EXCLUDER DEVICE, A 'TED'

ALEX says A TURTLE EXCLUDER
TECHNOLOGY ATTACHED WITHIN A
SHRIMP TRAWL'S NET TO REDUCE
TURTLE BYCATCH.
TEDS ARE ESSENTIALLY A FILTER
MADE OF METAL BARS.
WHILE SHRIMP AND SMALL FISH
EASILY PASS BETWEEN THE BARS,
WHEN A TURTLE ENCOUNTERS THE
TED, THEY ARE FUNNELLED THROUGH
AN OPENING IN THE SIDE OF THE
NET.

A clip shows a caught turtle swim to the bottom of the net and escape through an opening in between the netting and the metal ring at the end.

RANDALL ARAUZ says IT'S 97 PERCENT
EFFICIENT, YOU RETAIN THE
SHRIMP, SO THEY'RE SUPPOSED TO
BE GOOD.
THEY ACTUALLY WORK.
THE ONLY PROBLEM WITH THE TED
IS, THEY ONLY WORK IF YOU
INSTALL THEM AND USE THEM IN
YOUR NET.
THE TRUTH IS, ALL CENTRAL
AMERICA SHOULD BE EMBARGOED,
BECAUSE NOBODY HERE USES
TURTLE EXCLUDER DEVICES.

TYLER says RANDALL BEGAN TO
SEE THAT THE PROBLEM WAS MORE
COMPLICATED THAN JUST SAVING
TURTLES.
EVEN IF THEY
DID USE THE TECHNOLOGY, LET'S
SAY EVERYBODY IS USING TEDS.
WHAT ABOUT ALL THE LITTLE FISH?
THEY ARE STILL WIPING OUT LITTLE
FISH THAT HAVE NOT REPRODUCED
YET, THEY ARE WIPING OUT A
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPECIES,
THEY ARE WIPING OUT SHARKS.
OKAY, SO
THEY ARE SAVING THE TURTLES, BUT
THIS IS NOT A TURTLE
PROBLEM.
IT'S AN ECOSYSTEM PROBLEM, AND
THERE IS NO WAY TO FIX IT, IF
YOU'RE DRAGGING A NET ALONG
THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN.

A clip shows the net trapping small fish. A blue boat with a large net attached to it drags tons of sea life into the net.

ALEX says EVEN THOUGH TEDS ARE
AMERICA, VERY FEW FISHERMEN
INSTALL THESE DEVICES, CLAIMING
IT WOULD REDUCE THEIR CATCHES.
AND SINCE THE
SHRIMP TRAWLERS IN COSTA RICA
CONTINUED TO REFUSE TO
USE TEDS, RANDALL ONLY SAW
ONE OPTION LEFT TO PROTECT
TURTLES AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS.

RANDALL ARAUZ says WE RECENTLY FILED
SUIT IN THE COSTA RICAN
CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, AND WE
WON.
SHRIMP TRAWLING IS NOW BANNED
IN COSTA RICA,
AND IT IS GOING TO BE A
FIVE-YEAR PHASE OUT.
AS THE THIRTY-FIVE LICENSES
EXPIRE, IT'S ILLEGAL TO RENEW
THEM.

A clip shows a street demonstration in Guatemala against shrimp trawling.

RANDALL ARAUZ says WE INSPIRED THE
GUATEMALAN ACTIVISTS, AND IN
GUATEMALA THEY ARE CALLING FOR A
BAN ON SHRIMP TRAWLING AS WELL.
AND WE THINK THIS IS ACTUALLY
THE WAY THE WORLD HAS TO GO.

TYLER says FOUR OF THE SEVEN
SPECIES OF SEA TURTLES COME
TO COSTA RICAN BEACHES
THROUGHOUT THE YEAR TO LAY
THEIR EGGS AND VOLUNTEERS
ARE CONSTANTLY RELOCATING
EGGS TO PROTECTED NURSERIES.

A clip shows a turtle nursery with sand holes protected with green netting around each on and over them.
A clip shows Randall and Alex holding a blue bucket each; they contain small newly born turtles.

He says ALMOST EVERY MORNING A NEW
BATCH OF HATCHLINGS IS READY TO
BE RELEASED INTO THE OCEAN.

ALEX kneels on the sand next to Randall as the small turtles make their way to the ocean.

He says IT'S SUCH A BEAUTIFUL
SIGHT
TO SEE ALL THESE TURTLES,
JUST ABOUT TO ENTER THE
OCEAN FOR THE VERY FIRST
TIME.
THEY ARE AT THE START OF WHAT
WILL BE A VERY DIFFICULT JOURNEY
FOR THEM, AS THEY ENCOUNTER ALL
SORTS OF PREDATORS WAITING JUST
IN THE WATER HERE.
AND THEIR CHANCES OF SURVIVAL
ARE ABOUT ONE IN A THOUSAND, BUT
IT WOULD BE MUCH LESS IF IT
WASN'T FOR HATCHERIES LIKE THIS.

A little turtle gets to the water and struggles as it moves into the tide.

He continues IT'S WONDERFUL TO SEE
THAT THEY'LL HAVE A BETTER
CHANCE OF ENTERING THE OCEAN
WHERE THEY WILL FACE AN
EQUALLY DIFFICULT JOURNEY.

He points to a small turtle leaving a sand trail behind him and says MAYBE ONE DAY, THIS
GUY WILL END UP AT COCOS ISLAND,
AND JOIN THE UNDERWATER HIGHWAY
OF MIGRATORY TURTLES THAT
TRAVEL BACK AND FOURTH
BETWEEN THE MAINLAND AND
ISLANDS LIKE COCOS.

TYLER says NONE OF THESE BABY
TURTLES WILL RETURN TO LAND FOR
MORE THAN TEN YEARS UNTIL THEY
HAVE REACHED ADULTHOOD.
THEY ARE UNIQUE CREATURES THAT
PLAY A VITAL ROLE CONNECTING
OPEN OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS TO
BEACHES AND LAND ECOSYSTEMS.

Fast clips show the turtles crawling in the sea and disappearing in the water.

ALEX says WITH SEA TURTLE
POPULATIONS CONTINUING TO
PLUMMET, IT'S MORE IMPERATIVE
THAN EVER TO ENSURE THAT THEIR
LONG JOURNEYS IN THE OPEN OCEAN
WILL NOT BE DISTURBED BY THE
OFFSHORE.

Two fishing boats float a short distance from the shore.

RANDALL ARAUZ says THIS IS NOT A
TURTLE PROBLEM,
THIS IS NOT A SHARK PROBLEM.
THIS IS AN OVERFISHING PROBLEM,
THAT'S HURTING THE WHOLE
ECOSYSTEM.
AND OUR SOLUTIONS HAVE TO BE
ECOSYSTEM ORIENTED.
THAT'S WHY THESE CORRIDORS
WORK SO WELL.
YOU CREATE THIS CORRIDOR YOU
PROTECT AN ARRAY OF ENDANGERED
SPECIES, SO YOU GET A LOT OF
RETURN FOR THE PENNIES YOU
INVEST.

ALEX and Tyler stand on the beach in the early morning. The sky is yellow and pink as the sun starts to rise.

Alex says THIS EXPEDITION HAS
SHOWN US SO MUCH ABOUT HOW
INTERCONNECTED MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
REALLY ARE AND THE NEED TO
PROTECT THE UNDERWATER HIGHWAYS
ALONG WHICH SPECIES LIKE SHARKS
AND TURTLES MIGRATE.

TYLER says WE WERE INSPIRED TO SEE
HOW CITIZEN SCIENCE AND
VOLUNTEERING ARE HELPING TO MAKE
A BIG DIFFERENCE AND THAT MANY
GROUPS IN THE INTERNATIONAL
COMMUNITY ARE WORKING HARD
TO REDUCE ILLEGAL POACHING
AND OVERFISHING, BUT
ENFORCEMENT IS CHALLENGING,
ESPECIALLY AT SEA AND ACROSS
INTERNATIONAL BORDERS, SO WE
MUST REMAIN VIGILANT BECAUSE
SO MUCH IS AT STAKE.

ALEX says AND REDUCING THE DEMAND
FOR SHARK FIN SOUP AND SEA
TURTLES IS VITAL, BUT THAT
MAY NOT HAPPEN FAST ENOUGH
BEFORE SOME SPECIES ARE
DEPLETED BEYOND RECOVERY.
SO IN THE MEANTIME, WE NEED TO
BECOME MUCH BETTER AT
PROTECTING THE OCEAN AND
EATING SUSTAINABLY, AND
DEMONSTRATING WITH ALL THE
CHOICES THAT WE MAKE, THAT
ANIMALS LIKE SHARKS AND
TURTLES ARE ALWAYS WORTH
MORE ALIVE THAN DEAD.

TYLER says JOIN US AND DIVE
DEEPER INTO THE EPISODES AT
THEWATERBROTHERS.CA

A light blue slate reads "Dive deeper into the episodes at www.thewaterbrothers.ca"

End credits roll.

Executive producer, Jonathan Barker.

Producer, Wendy Mackeigan.

Host, director and co-producer, Tyler Mifflin.

Host, Writer and co-producer, Alex Mifflin.

Production manager and assistant editor, Nathan Cohen.

Executive producer for TVI, Jane Jankovic.

Production Associate for TVO, Christine Lee.

Adventure clothing provided by MEC.

Produced with the assistance of Canada Media Fund; Bell Fund, the Canadian film or video production tax credit.

Produced in association with TVO.

An SK films production.

Watch: Underwater Highway