Transcript: Between Two Africas | Aug 21, 1975

(enchanting music plays)

Colourful concentric circles enlarge. A caption appears on screen. It reads “Ontario Educational Communications Authority.”

[chanting in Arabic]

Muslim men pray in a mosque.

A film team stands by a fountain in the mosque.

A blond female team member says 324, I'M SORRY.
CREW UNDER ARREST.
WE'RE WAITING
FOR AZIZ TO COME
WITH THE PERMISSION
TO SHOOT.
WE'RE ENJOYING
OURSELVES.

A male director says IT'S A VERY
BEAUTIFUL BUILDING.
BUT WE ARE NOT SUPPOSED
TO SHOOT ANY FILM.
AND OUR TALENT
HAS ALL RUN AWAY.
SO WE'D JUST LIKE YOU TO
KNOW HOW WE SPEND THIS DAY.

The Narrator says THE NEW FILM
CREW HAS ARRIVED.
WE CONTINUE OUR JOURNEY
THROUGH NORTH AFRICA.

(rhythmic drumming plays)

Fast clips show local tribes in their daily activities, a straw village, traditional buildings, men wearing turbans, women wearing colourful dresses and a factory. A title in white letters reads “The Africa File.”

A man plays the punji as a man wearing a white turban defies a snake.

The title changes to “Between Two Africas.”

The Narrator says MOROCCO.
IT'S LIKE THE FAR WEST.
THIS FAR WEST IS
A DIFFERENT WORLD.
IT'S FRIGHTENING, ESPECIALLY
AFTER THE AUSTERITY AND
SEVERITY OF ALGERIA.

A large and crowded street market appears.

The Narrator continues MOROCCO, LAND OF
CONTRASTS AND EXTREMES.
FEAST AND FAMINE, FACT
AND FICTION, PURITY AND
DEBAUCHERY, WISDOM AND
FOLLY REIGN SIDE BY SIDE
IN THE KINGDOM OF
HASSAN II.
MOROCCO IS LIKE
A GIANT SIDESHOW.
EVERYTHING, FROM THE UGLIEST
TO THE MOST BEAUTIFUL
IS ON DISPLAY.
HERE, THE LEADER
OF THE UNFP,
THE OPPOSITION PARTY
FOUNDED BY BEN BARKA
IN 1958, SPEAKS ABOUT THE
FUTURE OF MOROCCO'S YOUTH.

A caption appears on screen. It reads “Abderrahim Bouabid. Chef d’opposition marocaine.”

Abderrahim Bouabid sits in an office. He’s in his sixties, clean-shaven with gray hair. He’s wearing glasses, a dark green suit, a striped blue shirt, a black tie and a light gray vest.

Abderrahim says YOU CAN'T SAY THAT OUR
PEOPLE ARE UNAWARE.
THE PEOPLE ARE PERFECTLY
AWARE OF THE PROBLEMS
CONFRONTING THEM.
THERE ARE THOSE
WITHOUT WORK.
EACH YEAR, NEARLY 120, OR
130,000 YOUNG MOROCCANS
REACH WORKING AGE, 18 YEARS
OLD, BUT THERE ARE NOT ENOUGH
JOB OPENINGS TO
EMPLOY ALL OF THEM.
THESE YOUNGSTERS, WHETHER
IN THE COUNTRY
OR IN THE TOWNS, ARE PERFECTLY
AWARE OF THEIR PROBLEMS.
HOW TO GET A JOB
AND EARN A LIVING.
IT'S UP TO THE GOVERNMENT TO
DEVISE THE MEANS OF FACING UP
TO THIS SITUATION AND
SATISFY THESE DEMANDS.
I DON'T MEAN BY WAVE
OF THE MAGIC WAND.
THERE AREN'T
ANY MAGIC WANDS.
BUT AT LEAST
CREATE SOME HOPE.
GIVE THEM THE HOPE THAT
ONE DAY WE'LL BE ABLE
TO ELIMINATE UNEMPLOYMENT BY
ACCEPTING A CERTAIN NUMBER
OF SACRIFICES AND ABOVE
ALL, BY COUNTING ON
OUR OWN DESIRE TO ERADICATE
UNDERDEVELOPMENT.
FOR US, THAT'S
SOCIALISM.

An aerial shot shows a dusty view of the city harbor.

A male worker says I HAVE A BIG FAMILY.
I WORK FOR THE PHOSPHATE
COMPANY FOR 15 YEARS.
THEY ABSOLUTELY HAVE
TO RAISE OUR WAGES.
WE'VE DEMANDED 30 PERCENT
SALARY INCREASE AND BENEFITS.
WELL, WE HAVE NEITHER SPORTS
FACILITY OR RECREATION ROOM.
OUR CHILDREN ARE LEFT
TO PLAY IN THE STREETS.
THERE IS NOT EVEN A LIBRARY
WHERE THE WORKERS LIVE.
SO WE'VE ASKED FOR THAT.
BUT MANAGEMENT ALWAYS
REFUSES TO ALLOCATE US
EVEN A TOKEN BUDGET TO BETTER
THINGS FOR THE WORKERS.

A boy sits on the ground hammering a tool.

The caption changes to “MM. Benanu and Fechtali. Trade unionists.”

Benanu and Fechtali stand on a terrace. Benanu is in his late thirties, clean-shaven with black hair. He’s wearing a gray jacket and a light sweater. Fechtali is in his forties with black hair. He wears a light green jacket.

Fechtali says THE SITUATION IN
MOROCCO IS SUCH THAT
REFORMS AREN'T ENOUGH.
WE NEED RADICAL CHANGES.
WE MUST CHANGE THE ECONOMIC,
POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL
STRUCTURES OF THIS COUNTRY.
IF WE KEEP THE SAME
STRUCTURES WE INHERITED
FROM COLONIALISM, WE'LL
REMAIN COMPLETELY
EXPLOITED AND
UNDERDEVELOPED.
THESE UNION LEADERS TALK TO
US LIKE THE ONES AT HOME.
THEY HAVE PRACTICALLY
THE SAME GESTURES,
THE SAME REFLEXES,
THE SAME WORDS.
IT COULD BE MICHEL CHARTRAND
OR LOUIS LABERGE.
SO WHEN WE SAY WE DEMAND
A RAISE BECAUSE MANAGEMENT
EARNS A LOT, THEY SAY,
YOU ARE ALREADY
IN A PRIVILEGED CLASS
COMPARED TO THE UNEMPLOYED.
BUT WILL THEY COMPARE
THE WORKERS' LOT
WITH THAT OF THE BOSSES?
HA!
NOT ON YOUR LIFE.
THEY TAKE A LOT.
THEY EARN MONEY,
HAND OVER FIST.
MILLIONS OF DOLLARS.
COMPARE US WITH THEM?
ONE MUST NOT COMPARE
WORKERS WITH THE RICH.
MAKE THE WORKERS OUT TO BE
PRIVILEGED BY COMPARING
THEM WITH THE UNEMPLOYED.

Benanu says THE POINT IS, THEY HAVE TRIED
TO CREATE A FALSE PROBLEM,
EMPLOYED WORKERS VERSUS
UNEMPLOYED WORKERS.
BUT REALLY, UNEMPLOYMENT
IS A RESULT OF
THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMIC
AND POLITICAL SITUATION.
AND THE PRESENCE OF A
PRIVILEGED CLASS
OF EXPLOITIVE CAPITALISTS.

Abderrahim says WE, IN THE UNFP,
SAY THAT TO DEVELOP,
TO ESCAPE UNDERDEVELOPMENT,
WE MUST REJECT CAPITALISM
AND TAKE THE
SOCIALIST PATH.
IT IS A PERMANENT DIALOGUE
BETWEEN THE PEOPLE
AND GOVERNMENT THROUGH
DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS
THAT WILL MOBILIZE OUR
MATERIAL, HUMAN,
AND INTELLECTUAL
RESOURCES.

A man drives a cart carrying fruit and vegetables.

Abderrahim continues ALL THIS SO YOU CAN STAND
ON OUR OWN TWO FEET
AND DEVELOP, RATHER THAN
COUNTING ON FOREIGN INVESTMENT.
THE AID WE BEG FOR,
LEFT AND RIGHT.
THAT DOESN'T MEAN IF WE ARE
WE WON'T ACCEPT FOREIGN
AID, IT SIMPLY MEANS
IT WILL BE COMPLEMENTARY TO
OUR PLANS, NOT ESSENTIAL.

(Moroccan music plays)
Cars drive by the Hotel Casablanca. Black and white pictures of Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall flash by.

Abderrahim says IT'S A BIT LIKE
IN CANADA.
WE HAD THE IMPRESSION THAT
THE SOUL OF THE COUNTRY,
THE BEAUTY OF ITS FOLKLORE
THAT WE OFTEN ASSOCIATE
WITH AUTHENTICITY IS
FOUND IN THE COUNTRYSIDE,
AMONG THE OLD, OR
AMONG THE POOR.
IN THE LARGE CITIES, THE
WORKER SEEMS TO RESEMBLE
WORKERS ELSEWHERE, AND
LEADERS IN THE END
SEEM TO HAVE THE SAME
AMBITIONS EVERYWHERE.
BUT WE MUST ALSO BE AWARE
OF THE LURE OF THE EXOTIC,
THE TRADITIONAL, AND
THE EXTRAORDINARY.
WHEN WE TRAVEL, WE HAVE A
TENDENCY TO SEE MEN AND
THINGS AS THOUGH THEY
ARE IN A SHOWCASE,
ALTHOUGH, IN THE END,
MEN, THE WORLD OVER,
CONFRONT THE SAME
QUESTIONS.

Farmers plough the land using donkeys.

Abderrahim continues THERE IS, YOU KNOW,
A PERSONALITY THAT
IS DISTINCTLY TUNISIAN,
A DEFINITELY ALGERIAN
PERSONALITY, AND A
PERSONALITY THAT
IS EVEN MORE
UNIQUELY MOROCCAN.
LET'S NOT FORGET THAT
MOROCCO IS THE ONLY COUNTRY
IN THE ARAB WORLD NEVER
DOMINATED BY THE TURKS.
WE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN
FIERCE INDEPENDENT.
EVEN VIS-A-VIS THE COUNTRIES
OF THE MIDDLE EAST.

A man says NONE MORE PROUD OR
HAUGHTY THAN A MOROCCAN.
NONE MORE FREE OF FEARS WITH
HIS OIL AND HIS REVOLUTION,
THAN AN ALGERIAN.
NONE MORE FRIENDLY AND
FREE THAN A TUNISIAN.

A car crosses a river.

Abderrahim says FIRST OF ALL, YOU MUST
REALIZE THAT UNTIL
THE 19TH OF 20TH
CENTURY, THESE COUNTRIES
WERE ORGANIZED
AROUND TRIBES.
GREAT TRIBES WHERE
EACH MAN WAS A WARRIOR.
THAT IS, EACH OF THESE
TRIBES REPRESENTS
A FORM OF ECONOMIC,
SOCIAL, POLITICAL,
AND MILITARY ORGANIZATION.

Cacti grow in an arid landscape.

Abderrahim continues IN MOROCCO, YOU DIDN'T FIND
THE DIVISION OF LABOUR
BETWEEN CIVILIANS AND
KNIGHTS THAT EXISTED
IN EUROPE DURING
THE MIDDLE AGES.
THIS TRIBAL ORGANIZATION IN
NO WAY IMPLIES BARBARISM,
SAVAGERY, PRIMITIVISM, NO.
FOR THESE TRIBES PLAY
AN IMPORTANT ROLE
IN THE FUNCTIONING OF THE
STATE OR CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.
THEY WERE, IF YOU LIKE,
THE GREAT TRIBES
THAT CONSTITUTED THE MILITARY
MIGHT OF THE STATE.
AND UNTIL THE 19TH CENTURY,
THIS ORGANIZATION PERMITTED
THE MAGHREB TO ENJOY
A STANDARD OF LIVING
BETTER THAN
THAT OF EUROPE.

Two women walk across a field. One of them carries a basket on her head.

The Director says OUR JOURNEY THROUGH
THE MAGHREB FROM TUNIS
TO CASABLANCA
IS AT AN END.
NOW, WE FLY TO THE OTHER
SIDE OF THE DESERT
TO BLACK AFRICA,
TO DAKAR.
DAKAR, FORMER CAPITAL
OF FRENCH WEST AFRICA,
WAS THE CENTRE OF FRENCH
COLONIALISM IN AFRICA.

An animated map of Africa appears. It reads “Dakar, Senegal. Casablanca, Maroc. Algerie, Tunise.” A plane moves from Casablanca to Dakar.

The Director continues BUT THE END OF THE COLONIAL
PERIOD DOESN'T ALWAYS
BRING TRUE INDEPENDENCE.

Tourists sunbathe on a beach.

[drumming]

The Director continues AFTER A LONG STAY IN NORTH
AFRICA, WHAT EXCITED US
THE MOST WHEN WE
LANDED ON THE SAHARA'S
SOUTHERN SHORES,
WAS THE MUSIC.
THE BURST OF LAUGHTER
PERMEATING THE AIR,
AND THE GRACE
OF THE WOMEN.
A FEAST OF DELIGHTS.

[drumming]
Shirtless women wearing long white necklaces and white feathers skirts dance vigorously.

The Director continues WHEN OUR FEET
TOUCHED THE EARTH,
WE FEEL OUR SENSES
COME ALIVE.
IT IS A WORLD FULL OF
SIGHTS, FULL OF SOUNDS,
FULL OF FRAGRANCE, AND
WE IMAGINE THE PEOPLE
TO BE BLACK,
BEAUTIFUL, AND HAPPY.

Doudou Sine sits in a room. He’s in his mid-thirties, with a black goatee and curly black hair. He’s wearing a white pullover.

Doudou says THERE HAS BEEN A
FORMAL, SUPERFICIAL
CHANGE OF INSTITUTIONS.
WE ARE A NEWLY
INDEPENDENT STATE
UNDERGOING
CHANGES ON PAPER.
BUT THE ECONOMIC FORCES
THAT ALWAYS CONTROLLED
OUR DESTINIES UNDER COLONIALISM
HAVEN'T BEEN ATTACKED.

The caption changes to “Doudou Sine. Sociologue.”

Doudou continues THEY ARE STILL THE
DECISIVE FORCES
THAT CONTROL THE COUNTRY.
WHETHER YOU ARE TALKING
ABOUT BANKS, INDUSTRY,
COMMERCE, WE SENEGALESE
STILL HAVE A LONG WAY
TO GO BEFORE WE
GAIN CONTROL.

(music plays)

The Director says EXUBERANCE, LIKE
LAUGHTER, OFTEN MASKS
DISILLUSIONMENT
OR MISERY.

At night, men dance stomping their feet and people clap.

The Director continues OUR FIRST FILMING
HERE WAS THE OPENING
OF THE MILITARY
POLYTECHNIQUE AT THIES,
A PRODUCT OF CANADA'S
ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
TO UNDERDEVELOPED
COUNTRIES.

(military music plays)
A man wearing a suit walks in front of soldiers raising their arms.

Doudou says WHAT STRIKES ME ABOUT THE
THIES POLYTECHNIQUE SCHOOL
IS ITS MILITARY ASPECT.
IN OTHER WORDS, THE MAIN
CONCERN OF PRESIDENT SENGHOR
AND THE SENEGALESE
LEADERS IS ULTIMATELY
TO DISCIPLINE
THE STUDENTS.
BUT THESE WORRIES ABOUT
CONTROLLING THE STUDENTS
FAR REMOVED FROM SOLUTIONS
TO THE PROBLEMS POSED BY
THE STUDENTS' REVOLTS,
AND BY THEIR INTEGRATION
INTO THE ECONOMY
AND THE JOB MARKET.

The Director asks HOW WILL YOU
DECIDE WHAT TO DO?

A Soldier says MY CHOICE OF JOBS WILL
DEPEND ON TWO THINGS:
FIRST, IT WILL DEPEND ON THE
MARKS I GET ON MY EXAMS,
THEN IT WILL DEPEND ON
THE TRAINING I GET HERE.

The Director says YOU ARE IN A UNIFORM.
IS THE DISCIPLINE
TOUGH HERE?

The Soldier says OH YEAH, IT'S
REAL TOUGH.

The caption changes to “Ousmane Camara. Ministre de l’Education.”

Ousmane sits at a desk. He’s in his late thirties, clean-shaven with short black hair. He’s wearing sunglasses, a gray suit, a white shirt and a light patterned tie.

Ousmane says BUT WHAT WE WANT
TO DO IS MAKE IT
SO THE YOUNG SENEGALESE
GRADUATING FROM
THE THIES POLYTECHNIQUE
WILL BE WELL-EQUIPPED
INTELLECTUALLY AND
PHYSICALLY.
WE FEEL THAT WHATEVER A
PERSON'S INTELLECTUAL
ABILITIES ARE, AS LONG AS HE
IS LACKING IN DISCIPLINE,
IN STAMINA, AND
SELF-CONTROL,
WE LOSE A SIGNIFICANT
PERCENTAGE
OF THAT INDIVIDUAL'S
POTENTIAL.

A female teacher gives a lesson in French.

Abderrahim says THE FRENCH EDUCATIONAL
SYSTEM NOT ONLY CARRIES
ALL THE VALUES OF FRENCH
CULTURE THAT ARE IMPOSED
ON US, BUT IT ALSO
DENIGRATES OUR CULTURE.
IT DOES SO AT THE EXPENSE
OF OUR OWN CULTURAL VALUES,
OUR THEATRE, OUR ORAL
LITERATURE, OUR SONGS,
OUR POETRY, NONE OF WHICH
GETS INTO OUR OWN SCHOOLS.
BUT FRENCH LITERATURE IS
TAUGHT TO THE EXCLUSION
OF EVERYTHING SENEGALESE.

A man says MANY FRENCH TEACHERS
HAVE RETURNED TO FRANCE.
THEY HAVE BEEN REPLACED
BY SENEGALESE TEACHERS.
THAT'S A GOOD THING.
BUT THE FRENCH LANGUAGE,
IT'S STILL HERE,
AS OBSTRUCTIVE AS EVER.

[teacher speaking French]

Doudou says IT'S OBVIOUS THAT THERE
IS DISSATISFACTION
IN THE SCHOOLS.
HARDLY A YEAR PASSES
WITHOUT STRIKES
IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS,
OR IN THE UNIVERSITY.
THE UNIVERSITY WAS EVEN
CLOSED DOWN A FEW YEARS AGO.
THE SICKNESS IS
INDICATIVE OF THE ANGUISH
FELT BY THE YOUNG.
NOT ONLY AT NOT FINDING WORK
AFTER FINISHING SCHOOL,
BUT IT'S THEIR WAY OF RESISTING
THIS EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
WHOSE CONTENTS DON'T HELP
THEM REALIZE THEIR HOPES.

A male professor teaches a group of boys outdoors.

The Director says IN THE MAGHREB, EVERYONE
IS AGREED THAT ARABIZATION
OF THE EDUCATIONAL
SYSTEM IS NECESSARY.
THEY HAVE REMAINED MUSLIM
IN THOUGHT AND CULTURE,
WHETHER OR NOT THEY ARE
PRACTICING MUSLIMS.
WHETHER THEY EVEN
BELIEVE OR NOT.
ARABIC IS TAUGHT THROUGHOUT
BLACK AND MUSLIM AFRICA,
BUT LANGUAGE TEACHING
POLICY IS CERTAINLY
NOT WELL-DEFINED.
TO OUR GREAT SURPRISE,
WE FOUND THAT CERTAIN
SCHOOLS HERE IN SENEGAL
GIVE PREFERENCE TO FRENCH,
OTHERS TO WELL OFF EVEN
OTHERS TO ENGLISH.
GEORGES GALIPEAU, A
QUEBECER, WHO WAS DIRECTOR
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DAKAR
SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM,
AND WHO HAS TAUGHT
IN TOGO AND VIETNAM,
HELPED US TO PUT THIS
POLICY IN PERSPECTIVE.

Georges Galipeau sits opposite to the director. He’s in his fifties with short hair. He’s wearing a light orange sweater, a white shirt and gray trousers.

Georges says THE THING TO KEEP IN
MIND ABOUT LITERACY
IS IT IS BASICALLY
A POLITICAL PROBLEM.
OF COURSE, THERE ARE MANY
TECHNICAL OBSTACLES
TO THE SPREAD OF LITERACY,
BUT IT'S MY FEELING
THAT THE POLITICAL PROBLEMS
ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT.

The caption changes to “Georges Galipeau. Université of Dakar.”

Georges continues YOU HAVE TO WANT TO
EDUCATE THE MASSES.
A POLICY, THAT, OF
COURSE, HAS ITS RISKS.
I SAY THAT BECAUSE I HAVE
WITNESSED CASES ELSEWHERE
IN THE THIRD WORLD WHERE
LITERACY CAMPAIGNS
HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT
RAPIDLY AND CHEAPLY.
I RECALL QUITE CLEARLY,
IN HIS FIRST ADDRESS
TO THE NATION AFTER HIS
TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO HANOI,
HO CHI MINH SAID THE FIRST
DUTY OF EVERY ILLITERATE
VIETNAMESE CITIZEN IS TO
LEARN TO READ AND WRITE.
THE FIRST DUTY OF EVERY
CITIZEN WHO DOES KNOW HOW
TO READ AND WRITE IS TO
TEACH HIS MOTHER AND FATHER,
HIS BROTHER AND
SISTERS, AND NEIGHBOURS,
HIS FRIENDS, AT
PLAY AND AT WORK.
FROM THAT STARTING POINT,
I SAW THEM SET UP
AN EXTRAORDINARY SYSTEM
USING WHATEVER LIMITED
MEANS THEY HAD.
FOR EXAMPLE, PEOPLE IN
VIETNAM OFTEN SPEND
AN HOUR, AND HOUR AND A HALF
IN GETTING TO THE FIELDS
TO WORK, WALKING SINGLE
FILE ALONG THE DYKES.
RIGHT AWAY, SOMEONE
THOUGHT OF PUTTING,
AT THE HEAD OF THE
LINE, A PERSON
WHO KNEW HOW TO
READ AND WRITE.
AND ON HIS BACK, A
CARDBOARD SIGN WITH WORDS
OR LETTERS ON IT,
WHICH WERE REPEATED
UP AND DOWN THE LINE.
SO FOR AN HOUR, AN HOUR AND A
HALF, WITHOUT WASTING ANY TIME,
PEOPLE WOULD LEARN
THEIR LESSONS.

(music plays)
Women wearing large colourful turbans and dresses arrange flower bouquets.

The Director says AFTER A WHILE, THE EUPHORIA
OF OUR ARRIVAL WEARS OFF.
IT'S TOUGH HERE.
FIRST MEETINGS ARE
EASY AND PLEASANT,
DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WE
EXPERIENCED IN NORTH AFRICA.
BUT ALL TOO OFTEN, THE
GREAT FLOWERY PHRASES
THAT FILL THE AIR TURN
OUT TO BE EMPTY ONES.
THE REALITY HERE IS
COMPLEX, AMBIGUOUS,
DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND.
OR PERHAPS WE'VE JUST
JUMPED TOO QUICKLY
FROM ONE CULTURE OR
CIVILIZATION TO ANOTHER.

A man wearing a blue shirt walks among a group of children.

The man wearing a blue shirt says I LIKE TO SAY
THERE AREN'T
ANY SOCIAL CLASSES
HERE IN SENEGAL.
WHETHER YOU ARE IN THE
HOME OF A MINISTER,
IN A BUREAUCRAT'S OFFICE
WITH A HIGH CIVIL SERVANT,
A LOW-LEVEL FUNCTIONER,
A LABOURER, AT NOON,
WE ALL HAVE THE SAME MEAL:
RICE WITH FISH.
NOW, YOU REALLY CAN'T
SAY THAT THERE
ARE SOCIAL CLASSES HERE.
IN FACT, WE ALL
EAT THE SAME THING.
OBVIOUSLY, ONE'S
HOUSING MAY VARY,
BUT THAT'S
ANOTHER STORY.
AS FOR SOCIAL CLASSES
THEMSELVES,
THEY DON'T EXIST.

Men eat rice with their hands sitting on the floor.

An old man says I HAVE BEEN INFLUENCED,
MARKED BY THREE CULTURES.
AN ARABIC MUSLIM UPBRINGING,
THAT'S EASY ENOUGH.
YOU CAN SEE I HAVE THE
QU'RAN IN FRONT OF ME.
BUT I SPEAK TO
YOU IN FRENCH.
THIS TELLS YOU THAT I
HAVE BEEN SUBJECTED
TO FOREIGN EUROPEAN
INFLUENCES.
AND FINALLY, I BELIEVE
IN THE EVIL EYE,
IN EVIL SPIRITS.
THE PROOF IS THAT I WEAR THIS
GRI-GRI, THIS PAGAN TALISMAN.
SO THERE IT IS.
MY BACKGROUNDS IS WOVEN
WITH THE PAGAN THREAD,
A MUSLIM THREAD, AND
A EUROPEAN THREAD.

A close-up shot features a sunny shore.

The Narrator says THE CHIEF OF A FISHING
VILLAGE NEAR DAKAR
TELLS US ABOUT HIS
STRUGGLE WITH THE SEA.
LARGE SHIPS AND
OVERFISHING HAVE PUSHED
THE FISHING GROUNDS
FARTHER OUT TO SEA.
IT'S DIFFICULT TO
OBTAIN THE MOTORS
NEEDED TO FOLLOW
THE FISH.
WHAT WITH THE HIGH PRICE OF
MOTORS AND THE USURIOUS LOANS,
YOU'D THINK YOURSELF IN THE
GASPE BAY OR THE MARITIMES.
WHETHER THEY WORK ON THE
OCEAN, IN THE FIELDS,
OR IN THE MARKETS, WHETHER
THEY ARE BUREAUCRATS
OR PEASANTS, LOOKING FOR
WORK OR A PLACE TO LIVE,
AFRICA IS A LAND OF PEOPLE
UPROOTED BY COLONIALISM,
DIVIDED BY ARBITRARY
POLITICAL BOUNDARIES.
A PEOPLE WHOM INDEPENDENCE
NEITHER LIBERATED
NOR MOBILIZED, OFTEN, A
PEOPLE NOT IN CONTROL
OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT
OR THEIR ECONOMY.
DOMINATED BY RELIGIOUS
AND POLITICAL LEADERS
IN LOVE WITH POWER
AND ITS REWARDS.
A PEOPLE TRYING TO GET
BY IN SPITE OF IT ALL.
A PEOPLE WHO
DESERVE BETTER.

Children sing in French.

Doudou says I THINK THAT IN THE
FUTURE, SENEGAL'S HOPES
WILL BE TIED TO
AFRICAN UNITY.
NO COUNTRY IN AFRICA IS
STRONG ENOUGH BY ITSELF
TO ESCAPE
UNDERDEVELOPMENT.
BECAUSE DEVELOPMENT
PRESUPPOSES THE CREATION
OF LARGE ECONOMIC UNITS,
WITH LARGE DOMESTIC
INTERNAL MARKETS.

People queue to collect water from a faucet.

Doudou continues INDUSTRIALIZING WITH AN
ABUNDANT, MOBILE
TRAINED LABOUR FORCE.
HAVING A COMMUNICATION NETWORK
THAT'S NOT JUST LINKED
WITH EUROPE, BUT WITH ALL
THE COUNTRIES OF AFRICA.
ALL OF THAT REQUIRES A
COMPLETE RESTRUCTURING
TOWARD ECONOMIC, POLITICAL,
AND CULTURAL UNITY.

Bechir Ben Yahmed is in his late forties, with black hair and clean-shaven. He’s wearing a black sweater.

Bechir says THERE IS A GALAXY OF
THINGS THAT UNITE AFRICANS.
WHETHER THEY ARE WHITE ARABS
FROM NORTH AFRICA OR BLACK,
OR SOMETIMES NOT ISLAMIZED
AFRICANS FROM SOUTH
OF THE SAHARA, WE HAVE
SOMETHING IN COMMON.
FIRST, COLONIZATION.
WE HAVE ALL BEEN
COLONIZED BY THE FRENCH,
THE ENGLISH OR
THE BELGIANS.
CONQUERED AT ABOUT THE SAME
PERIOD, ALL LIBERATED
AT ABOUT THE SAME TIME.
WE'RE TO THE SOUTH OF
EUROPE, AND IT IS TO OUR
FATE TO HAVE SPECIAL
ECONOMIC, POLITICAL,
AND CULTURAL RELATIONS
WITH EUROPE.
WE HAVE ADOPTED
FRENCH OR ENGLISH,
OR IN SOME COUNTRIES,
PORTUGUESE,
AS A WORKING LANGUAGE.

The caption changes to “Bechir Ben Yahmed. Directeur/Editor ‘Jeune Afrique.”

Bechir says IN OUR MAGAZINE, YOUNG
AFRICA, WE TREAT AFRICA
NORTH OF THE SAHARA, AND
AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA
IN EXACTLY THE SAME WAY.
NOW, PEOPLE SOUTH OF
THE SAHARA ARE GETTING
INTERESTED IN WHAT'S
HAPPENING IN THE MAGHREB
AREA, AND VICE VERSA.
ADD TO THAT A SORT OF
AWAKENING OF A SENSE
OF IDENTITY OF PEOPLE IN
THE THIRD WORLD WHO FEEL
THEY HOLD THINGS IN COMMON,
AND AT THE SAME TIME,
INTERESTS DIFFERENT FROM
THE ADVANCED, DEVELOPED,
INDUSTRIALIZED AND
RICH COUNTRIES.
ADD TO THAT, THAT WE
ARE AT SIMILAR STAGES
IN OUR HISTORICAL AND
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT,
SO THERE IS
SOLIDARITY THERE.
NOW, IN THIS SITUATION, I
THINK THAT THE MAGHREB,
BY VIRTUE OF ITS ARAB
NATURE, IT BEING ATTACHED
BY A SORT OF UMBILICAL CORD
TO THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST,
WITH ITS OIL RESERVES, AND
NOW ITS OIL PRODUCTION
AND ITS MONEY - BILLIONS
OF DOLLARS EACH YEAR.

Fire and black smoke comes out of several large towers.

Bechir continues
NOW, I FEEL THAT THE
ARAB AFRICAN WORLD
WILL BE INCREASINGLY
INTERTWINED, MAKING AN ENSEMBLE
MUCH MORE INTERESTING
THAN JUST THE ARAB WORLD,
OR JUST AFRICA
BY ITSELF.
IT WILL HAVE TO DEFINE A
NEW SET OF RELATIONSHIPS
WITH EUROPE AND THE
REST OF THE WORLD.
WITH THIS AS A BASE,
THE ARAB AFRICAN WORLD
WILL BE ABLE TO DEFINE MORE
EQUITABLE RELATIONSHIPS
WITH EUROPE, WITH ALSO
THE UNITED STATES,
FOR EXAMPLE, AND THE
SOCIALIST COUNTRIES.
BUT ONLY BY DESIGNING SUCH
A NEW POWER STRUCTURE
CAN OUR DEVELOPMENT
BECOME A REALITY.

[drumming]

(music plays)

The end credits roll.

Executive Producer, John Labow.

Written and Produced by, Karl Parent.

The Ontario Educational Communications Authority 1975.

Fast clips show people skiing, a forest and a city centre.

Watch: Between Two Africas